Garra barreimiae Garra barreimiae
In the Arabian Peninsula, wadis are riverbeds which are dry for most of the year, and full of water for the rainy season. There are, however, some riverbeds and pools that maintain water all year round. And in these, survive several species of fish--wadi fish. When the annual floods begin, these fish swim upstream and lay eggs in the highest pools.
However, they are threatened on many fronts--development, introduction of invasive species, lowering of the water level due to pumping, the building of dams, and pollution. Very little is known about the habits or range of these fish, although studies are underway.
Here's a photo of one better known species, Garra barreimiae, and an
article about wadi fish.
For more info, or to help out, check out Wadi Fish Conservation.